Concrete damage caused by freeze-thaw cycles is one of the main reasons for concrete deterioration. Water trapped in the capillaries and micro-cracks of concrete expands when it freezes. Without any free space to compensate for this expansion, internal pressure builds, slowly widening existing capillaries and creating new cracks in concrete. When temperatures rise, the frozen water in the concrete thaws and travels deeper into the capillary matrix, where the process is repeated during the next freeze cycle.
Freezing water in the capillaries and micro-cracks of concrete exerts an internal, expansive pressure; this leads to cracking of the concrete.
Freeze-thaw damage negatively affects durability and the service life of concrete since it increases permeability over the course of repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Some symptoms of freeze-thaw damage include spalling and scaling of the concrete surface, exposure of the aggregates, parts of the concrete coming off as well as D-cracking. Such damage accelerates the penetration of additional water and harmful chemicals into the concrete matrix, increasing the deterioration of the concrete.
The problem is significant and costly. The United States alone spends tens of millions of dollars every year to repair and maintain concrete structures affected by freeze-thaw damage.
In order to enhance concrete’s resistance against freeze-thaw damage, air entrainment additives are commonly applied. While these additives create additional voids in concrete to compensate for the expansion of freezing water, they also increase the concrete’s permeability and subsequently, reduce its compressive strength and durability.
A more effective way to combat freeze-thaw damage is the inclusion of PENETRON ADMIX into the concrete mix. Not only does PENETRON ADMIX seal existing capillaries, voids and cracks, it also enables self-healing of future cracks once they occur. This prevents water from entering the concrete in the first place.
Recent durability studies have shown that PENETRON ADMIX-treated concrete samples (without air entrainment admixtures) significantly reduce the risk of freeze-thaw damage and stay well below the limits for concrete exposed to severe environments (see diagram below), which completely eliminates the need for air entrainment additives. Click here to read more.
Company: Penetron International
Product: Penetron Admix
Moorgate Exchange is one of the first buildings in the UK to achieve both BREEAM Excellent and LEED Platinum ratings, and is an excellent example of how Xypex Admix can be used to simplify the production process of waterproofing and concreting.
Moorgate Exchange is a striking 344,000 sq ft building in the City of London. This commercial development has a green roof, strategic views of St. Paul’s and a two-story basement. Designed for large City occupiers, the building creates open plan floor plates and six green-terraced stepped back roof garden tiers. Floating on V columns, it is designed to cantilever the floors over the Crossrail tunnel beneath. Materials with sustainable properties, such as recycled aggregates in the concrete, were used in the construction process. Recycled rainwater and grey water storage systems have been installed to reduce the amount of potable water used in the toilets and the irrigation system for the ‘living’ walls on the terraces. The building is one of the first in the UK to achieve both BREEAM Excellent and LEED Platinum ratings.
This Skanska project is an excellent example of how Xypex Admix can be used to simplify the production process of waterproofing and concreting—both to be achieved simultaneously. One of the key influences for the decision making process of adopting the Xypex system as the waterproofing strategy was the total cost saving that was achieved through the whole package. Site attendance and quality assurance procedures were implemented to ensure a trouble-free installation of the waterproofing. The entire basement is cast utilising Xypex Admix and Xypex Concentrate for sealing the joints.
Company: Xypex Chemical Corporation
Earth Shield Waterstop is proud to announce three new waterstop profiles designed especially for environmental engineered concrete structures, such as waste and water treatment plants. All three profiles are ⅜" thick and have many interlocking ribs to grab into freshly poured concrete. Highlights of the new profiles include:
- NSF 61 Certified for drinking water
- Chemical resistant TPV polymer construction
- Ozone resistant to 600 PPHM
- UV resistant
- Heat weldable thermoplastic
The new profiles can be downloaded in our CAD Library located here.
Company: JP Specialties, Inc.
Product: TPV waterstop
Confronted with the relatively high water table of the UniMed construction site and the humid climate of Belo Horizonte, the project engineers quickly realized that the PENETRON crystalline products were the perfect solution. Construction of the three new buildings was done by Racional Engenharia (Rational Engineering), an engineering and construction services company.
During the first phase, the concrete for all three foundation slabs was poured. Next, the concrete retaining walls of the below-ground structures went up; all concrete was treated with PENETRON ADMIX during the batching phase. PENECRETE MORTAR, a topical repair compound, was also applied to fill and seal any cracks in the concrete that occurred in the final phase.
In total, about 10,000 m3 of concrete were treated with PENETRON ADMIX to ensure resistance to the hydrostatic pressure of the groundwater present at the construction site. The resulting construction joints were sealed with about 300 meters of PENEBAR SW-55 swellable-type waterstop.
For the above-ground concrete structures exposed to the elements, such as the parking garage ramps, PENESEAL PRO was sprayed directly on the surfaces to protect the concrete against any environmental effects.
PENESEAL PRO is a spray-on liquid sealer that is ideal for waterproofing and protecting exposed concrete surfaces, forming a gel that compensates for the movement of cracks due to thermal expansion and contraction. PENESEAL PRO reacts with the concrete to form a sub-surface barrier that protects against water penetration and seal hairline cracks, pores and capillaries. It remains active inside the concrete and continues to seal any new cracks due to settlement, thermal stress or external action.
UniMed, a Brazilian medical service cooperative and health insurance operator is the largest of its kind in the world, with 367 local member cooperatives. To expand its Belo Horizonte operations, UniMed invested R$250 million/US$125 million in the construction of three new large outpatient units, including a hospital to accommodate 300 doctors and a medical research facility.
Company: Penetron International
Product: Penetron Admix
Faena Hotel Miami Beach, which opened in August of 2016, is built on a concrete foundation treated with PENETRON ADMIX SB, a crystalline admixture in soluble bags. This project is the starting shot for a remarkable new Miami neighborhood: the Faena Arts District.
The new Faena Hotel Miami Beach is built on the shell of the 1950s Saxony Hotel, a well-known postwar Miami Beach hotel. The revamped oceanfront hotel has been reinvented in a glamourous Hollywood style and architecture, including an ocean view restaurant under an arching dome that was formed by layering concrete on a balloon. There are 169 guestrooms, which include 111 suites, two haute-cuisine restaurants, a 150-seat cabaret theater, and a spa.
“The restoration and transformation of the art deco Saxony Hotel into the modernist Faena Hotel Miami Beach has become a focal point for the whole district of Mid-Beach Miami,” says Christopher Chen, Director of The PENETRON Group.
The new hotel is a central part of the massive $1 billon Faena Arts District development (and renewal of Miami’s Mid-Beach district) that features not only the new Faena Hotel but also luxury condo towers, one of which is home to a record-setting $60 million residence, as well as an expansive shopping area and an arts/performance center – all yet to open. Alan Faena, the Argentinian real estate developer, enlisted world famous architects Rem Koolhaas and Norman Foster to create a stylish city-within-a-city.
The beachfront project benefits from PENETRON’s waterproofing and corrosion-mitigating properties needed for a location adjacent to the ocean and the area’s high water table. PENETRON ADMIX SB – in soluble bags – was used throughout the foundation to treat all the concrete in the expanded footprint of the hotel.
“PENETRON technology ensures an absolutely waterproof and durable structure in one of the most desirable locations in the Miami Beach district,” adds Mr. Chen. “It’s a showcase project for the city.”
Company: Penetron International
Concrete stains are a quick, easy and cost effective way to transform a dull slab. While most decorative concrete contractors opt for water-based stains (and for good reason), acid stains still have their place in the market. Water-based stains offer numerous advantages from environmental, aesthetic and functional standpoints.
Simply put, water-based stains are better for environment. Acid stains contain potentially hazardous materials and require additional containment cleanup in regulated areas such as California where there is extra attention paid to storm water runoff. Water-based stains are environmentally safe and do not require special handling during application, nor do they carry disposal concerns.
Water-based stains typically have a larger color palette and offer versatility to the applicator with the ability to blend or dilute colors. Vibrancy can be achieved with water-based stains, while acid stains are typically in the natural, earth tone range. Water-based stains allow the applicator to decide how solid or opaque the color will become based on the amount of water used. With an acid stain, you really are at the mercy of the reaction that occurs. To achieve deeper tones with acid stain, multiple applications may be required, or you may need to bring in other products.
Water-based stains possess additional functional benefits that are attractive to both the applicator and end-user. For instance, they do not discolor or fade over time, or radically change color due to UV rays. When applied to properly prepared concrete substrates, water-based stains will not exhibit cracking, crazing, spalling, delamination, softening or other deteriorating effects.
Since acids chemically react with concrete, and because no two concretes are the same, an acid stain reaction yields a different look or color on different batches of concrete. Contractors who are familiar with acid stains are comfortable explaining to their clients that they may not exactly get the intended appearance when using an acid stain. Various shades will be produced based on the concrete matrix, it’s age, it’s porosity or density, chemicals it has been exposed to, etc. The anticipated variation can be exciting to some. While to others, it can be disastrous. For those looking for something totally unique and custom, acid stain may be the solution. For those conservative folks who prefer a ‘what you see is what you get’ kind of outcome, water-based stains are the way to go.
Acid stains require the extra steps of cleaning and neutralizing after 24 hours, then additional time for the concrete to dry prior to sealing. Water-based stains don’t require neutralizing or cleaning after the stain has been applied, so sealers may be installed the following day.
When Acid Stains Make Sense
- Acid stains are predominantly used out of habit these days. The exception would be that water-based stains cannot be used in conjunction with polished concrete. Acid stains can.
- Acid stains do become a permanent part of the concrete, and therefore will not fade, peel or crack over time.
- Both types of topical stains can be applied to interior and exterior surfaces, as they are ultraviolet light stable. As with all stains, acid and water-based stains are translucent in appearance and therefore the concrete slab’s surface textures and variations are visible.
- Some installers actually prefer to use a blend of both materials. Often, acid stains are used as a base color and a water-based stain is then used to antique or create additional mottling.
- Regardless which type of stain, always remember the importance of sealing these products with a protective sealer that will endure the chemicals, UV and traffic that a decorative stained surface is exposed to.
Of: Tracey Lackovich & Paul Scheidmantel
From Design to Construction... Federally Mandated Guidelines clearly state that concrete vault systems must be “constructed with chemical-resistant water stops in place at all joints (if any)” (Quote is directly from EPA Title 40 CFR 265.193 [new construction] and Title 40 CFR 264.193 [retrofit]). Earth Shield® products have been helping industry comply with these regulations in the most efficient and cost effective manner. We can assist in all three key phases of major industrial projects.
- DESIGN — Seminars for Engineers and Owners
- PRODUCT AVAILABILITY AND COMPETITIVE PRICING — Most orders shipped 1 to 3 days ARO
- TECHNICAL SUPPORT FOR CONTRACTORS — On-site tech service and plastic welding schools
JP Specialties, Inc. is the leading manufacturer of chemical resistant waterstop and related concrete accessories. Our NSF 61 certified Earth Shield® line of chemical resistant waterstop is used throughout the world by major engineering firms and project owners for primary and secondary containment applications, as well as industrial wastewater treatment and ozone contactor structures. We invented and hold the patent on the technology used to mechanically weld thermoplastic waterstops. Services offered include free blueprint take-off and shop drawings, on-site welding certification, and individual corrosion resistance certification for the project owner.
- We assist the Design Engineer and Project Owner with individual project and waterstop product specification and certification
- Full takeoff service including shop drawings at no cost to customer
- Waterstop Shop Drawings including 2-D CAD details and 3-D isometric
- FAST job site delivery anywhere in the world
Company: JP Specialties, Inc.
Take a look at the California Retail Food Code Section 114268, where it talks about the requirements of flooring for a food facility: "...the floor surfaces in all areas in which food is prepared, prepackaged, or stored, where any utensil is washed, ... shall be smooth and of durable construction, and nonabsorbent material that is easily cleanable. Floor surfaces shall be coved at the juncture of the floor and wall with a 3/8 inch minimum radius coving and shall extend up the wall at least 4 inches...“
There aren’t many flooring options for a food facility that meets those very exacting requirements. Seamless resinous flooring systems best meets these needs. Let’s look at why that is.
First of all, flooring for a food facility washdown area must be able to meet the ordinary requirements of workplace safety and floor longevity. The flooring must be able to withstand frequent cleaning and sanitization that might happen multiple times each day. Cleaning standards require some sort of chemical cleaner, so the floor must not be damaged by these chemicals which may be harsh and abrasive to flooring surfaces.
In addition, the washdown area will have high-pressure sprayers that are scouring equipment and the floor at close range, with very hot water. The floors are repeatedly flooded from cleaning. This means the floors must be anti-slip even through a potential near-constant layer of hot water and soap or chemicals on the floor.
Resinous floor coatings like decorative quartz systems or urethane concrete systems meet and exceed these needs. Duraamen has a variety of resinous flooring materials with exceptionally high abrasion resistance and chemical resistance. If these floors can withstand chemical cleaners, they can definitely withstand water from a power washer or sprayer. In fact, there’s very little than can affect these floors, which makes them perfect flooring options for a food facility washdown area. Urethane Concrete Screeds also provide thermal shock resistance to the floors. The floors are cleaned with hot water or steam followed by cold water. Most of the flooring systems dis-bond from the substrate. Urethane Concrete Screeds have the ability to withstand this hot-cold water washing.
A seamless resinous system like urethane concrete can be applied over existing flooring concrete substrate. Urethane concrete systems are a fast application and a fast cure that can be ready for traffic in 24 to 36 hours. These flooring systems can have additives which can be non-slip and anti-microbial. Because the additives are mixed in with the entire flooring system, if for some reason your floor is gouged, you would still be protected. Urethane Concrete flooring systems do not easily deteriorate, so they can withstand the abuse of any commercial environment. They are applied in one homogeneous layer, so there’s nowhere for bacteria to hide. Get in touch with Duraamen to find out more about Duraamen’s floor coatings for a food facility washdown area.
Company: Duraamen Engineered Products Inc.
Around the world, waterfront construction sites with a high water table call for PENETRON technology. The basement structure of Rio de Janeiro’s newest hotel, the Hilton Barra Rio de Janeiro Hotel, is built on PENETRON’s crystalline technology.
The Hilton Hotel company slogan, “Take me to the Hilton,” now has new meaning for visitors to Rio de Janeiro. Situated just minutes away from Rio’s Olympic Park, the Hilton Barra Rio de Janeiro Hotel opened just in time for Rio 2016 Summer Olympics Games. This upscale 298-room hotel, also in the midst of the city’s Barra da Tijuca business district, features a restaurant, meeting rooms, a business center, a rooftop pool (with a view), and an underground parking garage.
Given this situation, the PENETRON Brazil team worked with the developer and general contractor to come up with an effective solution for the Hilton Barra project. Ultimately, PENETRON ADMIX was specified to treat the concrete used in the below-grade slab to ensure low permeability and a durable concrete structure.
Company: Penetron International
Product: Penetron Admix
While cement-based overlays have been around for decades, many of the systems widely available today blend polymer resins with cement, sand and other additives to create a highly durable, attractive and easily maintained flooring overlay systems to be used over concrete.
With so many choices available on the market today, many questions arise as to the differences among polymer overlays, specifically in application and material, to achieve the functionality and appearance wanted by a client.
Among the most popular choices:
Broom Finishes with Sealer and Optional Coloring
This type of overlay system finish is achieved by applying a base coat of thin-set resurfacing material over the surface by either squeegee or cement trowel. A second application is applied, and the surface is broom finished as new concrete is poured. The surface is then sealed with a sealer appropriate for the type of traffic that is anticipated.
This system is achieved by using two different types of application systems. Commonly known as a “knock-down” finish, it’s applied using a standard compressor and drywall hopper gun. More specifically, thin-set resurfacing material is sprayed over the surface and flattened using a standard cement swivel trowel, leaving various high/low spots. This allows surface water to pool in the lower un-troweled areas, which is better known as “cool deck,” since water sitting in the un-troweled areas allows water to stand and cools the deck. It’s also frequently used on pool decks and areas where skid resistance is required.
The second method of texturing is probably the most common type of decorating finish used by contractors nationwide. With this particular coating, a base coat of thin-set material is applied to the surface by hand trowel or spray to creating different designs that simulate the appearance of either stone or limestone. It is then stained and sealed with the appropriate type of sealer specific to traffic area.
Decorative Overlays (⅛” and ¼”)
These type of overlays are applied by trowel or screed rake. The ⅛” overlay is normally a seamless type of texture, giving the appearance of large simulated stone textures without grout joints, with hundreds of stamping mats area available in different designs and textures. Grout joints are cut into the surface after curing has taken place, and then the surface is stained and sealed with the appropriate sealer. The ¼” stamped overlay is very similar to the ⅛” overlay, except the pattern creates the simulation or design of individual stones with grout joints. The surface is then colored and sealed with the appropriate type of sealer depending upon the traffic.
Stain & Sealer Finishes
Staining and sealing of concrete surfaces is very popular in a wide range of environments. The system consists of staining the surface using water-based color-stains, dyes or acid stains, and then it’s typically saw-cut in patterns, shapes or designs, color applied and sealed to meet the traffic needs of the area.
Of: John Holwitz
At Nawkaw, we enjoy coloring and staining architectural elements to achieve unique finishes for our clients. If you are looking for a way to personalize your concrete in addition to using a concrete stain, US Formliner (USF), our sister company, now offers a product that allows you to transfer virtually any image onto concrete.
The product, Artico®, was launched by Reckli®, cofounder of USF. Through the use of this new product, photographs, graphics, artistic elements, etc. can be made visible in concrete.
The system uses a retarding agent that is applied to a specialized film onto which any desired image is transferred. The film is then secured to the concrete formwork and the concrete is poured on top of it. The retarding agent slows the cure rate of the concrete with which it comes in contact. When the surface is power-washed, the design element is revealed as exposed aggregate. When the process is complete, the concrete is transformed with an elegant, permanent image etched into the concrete itself.
This product is suitable for both indoor and outdoor use. To learn more, visit USFormliner.com.
Company: Nawkaw Corporation
REASON 1: DESIGN OPTIONS
From polished concrete floors to matte, satin and gloss finishes, the sky’s the limit for modern design options with concrete resurfacing products from Düraamen.
Our colorfast integral color is available in 34 individual colors. 68 hues can be realized depending on your choice of either a gray or white basecoat. Aesthetically stunning classic, modern, and contemporary designs can be achieved with thoughtful color selection.
REASON 2: A WISE INVESTMENT
A tough, modern resurfaced concrete floor adds dollars to your property.
New flooring using concrete resurfacing is one of the best investments you can make to your home or commercial property. This is particularly true in the case of decorative, resurfaced concrete flooring. Unlike carpeting or hardwood, resurfaced concrete will stay looking new for years to come and its appearance and durability adds value to any home or commercial property.
REASON 3: PROTECTION
Concrete resurfacing provides protection against spills, soil, scrapes & abrasions.
A resurfaced concrete floor is the most impact, scratch and abrasion resistant when compared to other types of residential flooring. Mud, dirt and spills clean up easily on a decorative concrete floor. The only maintenance required is occasional dust and conventional mopping.
REASON 4: EXPENSE
Concrete resurfacing is less expensive than replacing concrete.
Resurfaced concrete flooring is far less expensive than concrete replacement, comparably priced to carpeting and a better value than hardwood flooring. It may be applied over existing concrete, tile or plywood. When you consider it’s durability and ease of maintenance it is by far the best value available in residential and commercial flooring options.
Company: Duraamen Engineered Products Inc.
Penetron crystalline materials, when mixed into the concrete, produce crystals or react with concrete components to generate a crystalline lattice that stops moisture and lowers permeability – increasing the strength and durability of concrete.
President and CEO of Penetron Group noted: “The professionalism and devotion of Penetron dealers worldwide played a large part in the continued growth that Penetron has seen in the past few decades – we are now represented in over 80 countries and still growing”
This crystalline technology helps concrete endure in all climates – from arctic tundra to wind-blasted deserts, and humid tropical jungles to pounding railways. Here are just a few projects that count on Penetron:
Magadan Wastewater Treatment Plant in western Siberia above the Arctic Circle, where soil is permanent frozen; Penetron was used to repair damaged concrete and provide much-needed resistance to the brutal climactic conditions.
Water Reservoir in the Namib Desert, an almost uninhabited and arid wasteland in South Africa; Penebar SW waterstop was used to permanently seal all joints in the concrete reservoir structure to prevent any water losses.
Corinthians Soccer Stadium in Sao Paulo, Brazil was newly constructed for the FIFA World Cup 2014 with seating capacity for up to 68,000 fans; Penetron Admix was used to waterproof all concrete structures in the stadium.
Sydney’s Central Railway Station is the largest and busiest railway station in Australia; PENETRON technology was used in all new and renovated concrete structures, including new rail beds, underpasses and underground structures.
Not only places with extreme weather conditions, but also popular American tourist sites benefit from Penetron technology:
Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor had the deteriorated pedestal repaired and strengthened with Penetron materials that eliminated the moisture from all the concrete structures in the foundation.
Salvador Dalí Museum in Florida is only 200 feet away from Tampa Bay and five feet above sea level, with thick concrete walls built to withstand a Category 5 hurricane; Penetron Admix helps eliminate water infiltration during Florida's rainy season and protect a priceless art collection.
There are hundreds of other buildings, plants, dams and bridges that added Penetron to their concrete. These projects give you a good idea of where and why our crystalline technology is found virtually everywhere in the world.
Company: Penetron International
Better than real wood planks, this surface is a polymer modified cementitious overlay applied to existing concrete and made to look like wood.
Stronger + Stain Resistant + Weather Resistant = Better
When unsightly, old and damaged concrete is no longer acceptable the option for concrete resurfacing should be your top choice. Concrete floors over time will often develop cracks, show surface spalling, stain, and begin to deteriorate. Typically the structural concrete slab will be fine but its surface is in need of repair and concrete resurfacing. Elite Crete Systems has been leading the concrete resurfacing industry for decades and has a wide variety of products and systems to choose from.